According to the report modern slavery takes many forms, and is known by many names: slavery, forced labour or human trafficking.'Slavery' refers to the condition of treating another person as if they are property - something to be bought, sold, traded or even destroyed.
'Forced labour' is a related but not identical concept, referring to work taken without consent, by threats or coercion.
'Human trafficking' is another related concept, referring to the process through which people are bought, through deception, threats or coercion, into slavery, forced labour or other forms of severe exploitation.
Whatever term is used, the significant characteristic of all forms of modern slavery is that it involves one person depriving another people of their freedom: their freedom to leave one job for another, their freedom to leave one workplace for another, their freedom to control their own body.
This Index estimates that there are 29.8 million people in modern slavery globally.
When considered as a percentage of population, the prevalence of modern slavery is highest in Mauritania, Haiti, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Moldova, Benin, Cote d'Ivoire, the Gambia and Gabon.
However, when considered in absolute terms, the countries with the highest estimated numbers of enslaved are India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Russia, Thailand, Democratic Republic of Congo, Myanmar and Bangladesh. Taken together, these 10 countries account for more than 76% of the total estimate of 29.8 million enslaved. The top 10 countries ranked for their low prevalence are: Ireland, Iceland, UK, New Zealand, Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, Luxembourg, and Denmark.
The country with the largest estimated number of people enslaved is India, which is estimated to have between 13,300,000 and 14,700,000 people enslaved. The country with the second highest absolute numbers of enslaved is China, with an estimated 2,800,000 to 3,100,000 in modern slavery.
The country with the third highest absolute number in modern slavery is Pakistan, with an estimated 2,000,000 to 2,200,000 in modern slavery, according to the report.